The basis of all the tissues are fibers. They differ in composition, structure and, therefore, properties. Properties of fibers are also reflected in the properties of the tissue. There are two kinds of fibers: natural fibers and chemical fibers. The main indications for the classification are: the chemical composition of fibers and their area of origin.
Chemical fibers in 1890 in France in Besancon was organized by the world's first chemical (Artificial). It was based on the processing solution of cellulose ether (cellulose nitrate) used in industry for obtaining smokeless powder and certain types of plastics. Chemical fiber – fiber Artificial or synthetic origin. Such fibers are made of various chemical compounds. Chemical fibers, used for the manufacture of tissue, similar to a natural, vary in composition, structure and properties.
Subdivided chemical fibers into two classes: artificial fibers and synthetic fibers. Artificial fibers derived from natural macromolecular compounds. Raw material for such fibers are polymers, naturally occurring in finished form (cellulose, proteins). Manmade fiber is a thin continuous thread. The fabric of this yarn has a flat smooth surface with a clear picture weave. Of synthetic fibers produce materials: acetate, rayon, staple, modal. These fabrics are pleasant to the touch, long stay dry and have excellent breathable properties. Today, thanks to the latest technology, fabrics of artificial fibers, not only did not concede to their physico-chemical and operating properties of natural fabrics, but are they a worthy substitute. For synthetic fibers include: – Hydrocellulose: viscose, lyocell and copper-ammonia – cellulose acetate: acetate and triacetate – Protein: casein and zeinovye Viscose and acetate fibers – a man-made fibers of vegetable origin, derived from cellulose or cotton waste. Synthetic fiber – fiber is extracted by the synthesis of natural low molecular weight compounds. These fibers have a chemical composition similar to that does not meet among natural materials. Synthetic fibers are produced by the synthesis of natural low molecular weight compounds (phenol, ethylene, acetylene, methane, etc.) as a result of the polymerization reaction or polycondensation in the main of refined petroleum products, coal and natural gas. Polyamides, polyesters, poliakrilnitrilnoe – all synthetic fibers. Nowadays, thanks to the use of advanced technology, synthetic fibers give more and more quality, for example, using methods of chemical or mechanical processing. The most popular fiber such as nylon, acrylic, polyamide, polyester, spandex, lycra. Development of industry resulted in excellent consumer quality synthetic fibers that are even superior to natural ones. All modern synthetic materials have such valuable properties as quickly absorb and condensate, moisture from the body surface. Achieved such an effect or due to the structure of the fibers used, or by a special weaving yarns. In addition, modern synthetic materials dry fast, very strong and durable, light, almost rumpled. Practice has proved that the wearing of synthetic fabrics can improve human performance in extreme conditions. To synthetic fibers include: – carbochain 1.Poliakrilonitrilnye (nitrones, Orlon, acrylic, kashmilon, Courtalain, dralon, volpryula) 2.Polivinilhloridnye (chlorine, barn, Vignon, rovil, teviron) 3.Polivinilspirtovye (Vinola, mtilan, vinilon, kuralon, vinalon) 4.Polietilenovye (Range, daynema, tekmilon) 5.Polipropilenovye (gerkulon, ulstren found, meraklon) – hetero 1.Poliefirnye (dacron, terylene, dacron, teteron, Elana, tergal, tesil) 2.Poliamidnye (nylon, nylon-6, Perlon , dederon, amyl, anid, Nylon-6, 6, Rhodia, nylon, niplon, Nomex) 3.Poliuretanovye (spandex, lycra, vayrin, Espa, neolan, spantsel, vorin) When mixed artificial or synthetic fiber cloth acquires additional properties: elasticity, elasticity, strength, heat resistance, etc. Woven fabrics of artificial, synthetic fibers and their blends are used as camouflage fabric, fabric jackets, fabric blends, textiles sumochnye, awning fabric, fabric for sportswear clothing, fabrics for overalls, etc. Of these, sew casual wear, corporate and protective clothing, clothing for outdoor activities and sports.