According to embodiment design of foundations can be divided into: – Band performed as a monolithic and precast concrete; – pile, used mostly in soft ground and for moving large loads – columnar – slab, performed in a single monolithic plity.S view of features of the Moscow region, where mostly dominated by poor soils and even the common bulk, the use of pile foundations under construction of houses is quite important issue, why dwell on it a little bit more. Piles for the foundations can be made of wood, steel or reinforced concrete. There are also combined versions. But the most popular pile foundations made of concrete. Depending on the design of performance and features of geological location of building pile foundation operates as a hanging piles or in piles, pillars, which passes through soft ground and abut but stronger grounds. Hanging piles tend to use loose friable soil and transmit the load to the ground due to friction forces. Upper part piles tied up with each other usually reinforced concrete – grillage – which provides bearing and bearing structures of a building under construction.
The advantages of pile foundation include the following factors: as a rule they do not require large amounts of excavation, there is no need to protect this foundation of groundwater, such a foundation is economical enough for the consumption of concrete and general labor for the unit. However, when constructing pile pile foundation requires a special technique for mechanical immersion piles into the ground. The most widely used still strip foundations as the most technologically and capable of carrying very large .Lentochny foundation can be made as of reinforced concrete and precast concrete, as well as from the rubble concrete or rubble. Foundations in the form of slabs erected mainly from reinforced concrete. In the case of occurrence of strong ground at a depth of 2,5 – 3,0 meter – for low-rise buildings is reasonable to use columnar foundations operated concrete block on the concrete bottom plate) and tied together with jumpers or a foundation beam. However, such a design foundation is subject to the most erratic rainfall of the building.
The best results for uniform shrinkage can be obtained using foundation in the form of a continuous monolithic plate. In addition, they protect the basement of the groundwater. Building foundations – a category of jobs with increased responsibility, where the violation of construction technology or use materials can lead to very serious consequences. You can also save on materials of walls, the finishing materials, or others, but savings on the foundation is always returned as a very unfortunate results. In the Moscow region, built a large number of private houses, originally built it for sale and made a huge violation of technologies so that even Stay in it becomes dangerous, not to mention living in a house. But the sad fact that after all these houses eventually find their owners!