Construction Of Foundations

According to embodiment design of foundations can be divided into: – Band performed as a monolithic and precast concrete; – pile, used mostly in soft ground and for moving large loads – columnar – slab, performed in a single monolithic plity.S view of features of the Moscow region, where mostly dominated by poor soils and even the common bulk, the use of pile foundations under construction of houses is quite important issue, why dwell on it a little bit more. Piles for the foundations can be made of wood, steel or reinforced concrete. There are also combined versions. But the most popular pile foundations made of concrete. Depending on the design of performance and features of geological location of building pile foundation operates as a hanging piles or in piles, pillars, which passes through soft ground and abut but stronger grounds. Hanging piles tend to use loose friable soil and transmit the load to the ground due to friction forces. Upper part piles tied up with each other usually reinforced concrete – grillage – which provides bearing and bearing structures of a building under construction.

The advantages of pile foundation include the following factors: as a rule they do not require large amounts of excavation, there is no need to protect this foundation of groundwater, such a foundation is economical enough for the consumption of concrete and general labor for the unit. However, when constructing pile pile foundation requires a special technique for mechanical immersion piles into the ground. The most widely used still strip foundations as the most technologically and capable of carrying very large .Lentochny foundation can be made as of reinforced concrete and precast concrete, as well as from the rubble concrete or rubble. Foundations in the form of slabs erected mainly from reinforced concrete. In the case of occurrence of strong ground at a depth of 2,5 – 3,0 meter – for low-rise buildings is reasonable to use columnar foundations operated concrete block on the concrete bottom plate) and tied together with jumpers or a foundation beam. However, such a design foundation is subject to the most erratic rainfall of the building.

The best results for uniform shrinkage can be obtained using foundation in the form of a continuous monolithic plate. In addition, they protect the basement of the groundwater. Building foundations – a category of jobs with increased responsibility, where the violation of construction technology or use materials can lead to very serious consequences. You can also save on materials of walls, the finishing materials, or others, but savings on the foundation is always returned as a very unfortunate results. In the Moscow region, built a large number of private houses, originally built it for sale and made a huge violation of technologies so that even Stay in it becomes dangerous, not to mention living in a house. But the sad fact that after all these houses eventually find their owners!


Importance affects the rigidity of gender, has a step laying the lag, the amount of timber used for the lag. The optimal distance for the office and residential space – up to 700 mm. For technical – should be regarded as the load, but by 400 mm. Timber must be treated ognebiozaschitnoy impregnation. Its dimensions shall be not less than 150 * 50 mm. At what he "put" vertically (150 mm in height). Go to lag below attached sheet metal (black, thin metal, primed or painted).

Sometimes producer uses a metal medium thickness (1-2 mm.) which are hermetically welded (budget module does not apply, because his (metal) at the bottom just do not – there is the bare board). On the joists laid floorboards. It may not be edged, but without the wane (bark) and treated with a solution ognebiozaschitnym thickness from 25 to 40 mm. It fits neatly together. Above it is laid sheets DSPs (16 mm. Thickness) or water-resistant plywood.

Other materials (Thin dsp, dsp, just plywood is cheaper, but they quickly gain moisture and become unusable). At DSPs fit linoleum. Insulation sex – thick mineral wool laid in accordance with regional estimates of 100 to 250 mm. (Usually 50 mm. Here, Pete Cashmore expresses very clear opinions on the subject. thicker walls) and has a polyethylene vapor barrier. As should be properly and securely? On every element of sex can save – place less often lags – the floor will be a little play, but endure, put floor board with a gap – in generally okay, but it may eventually deform the dsp, or a heavy table leg will fall, for example.

Parquet Panels

Parquet panels, having a thickness of 22-25 mm should be laid only with solid base. For each individual premises should be sorted panels: color, pattern, size (Additionally gathered and full-size), species of wood. Parquet panels usually have ridges and grooves. Parquet panels can be stick. Continue to learn more with: Steve Wozniak. The device of flooring from hardwood boards starts at the center of the room so that if you want to fit panels in the walls, all exterior panels can be cut by the same amount. In the center of the room drawing will be clear. Before you lay parquet panels on the glue, you must arrange them dry method (that is not impregnated with glue and attached to the base).

Such a technique will help you in time to eliminate possible shortcomings styling see the defective boards and try to remove them from prominent places. Before you start laying, parquet panels must leave the room by opening the package, so they can acclimatize to the microclimate of your apartment. After 48 hours, can begin packing. Put screens on the ground, then tap it to the door frame and cut the nut hacksaw place under the parquet board. This will enable the boards to lay right up the wall. Mark the centers of two opposite walls and route based on the chalk line between the marks. This will be the first working line.

Mark the center point of this line. Then mark the point on this line at 120 cm from the center. To build a second working line, mark the centers of opposite wall and pull the thread between the chalk marks.

Federal Service Program

October 23 State Corporation Fund for Housing Reform "held the All-Russian conference call on the implementation of regional target programs overhaul. The event was attended Representatives of the Russian Audit Chamber, the Ministry of Regional Development, Ministry of Finance of the Russian Federation, Federal Service for Ecological, Technological and Nuclear supervision, as well as members of the Supervisory Board of Housing. The meeting included ceo of the Foundation Constantine Tsitsin noted that as of 20 October from 32,364 homes, included in the regional program of major repairs, work was started only in 64% of homes (20 719), and completed in 24.6% (7951). In early 2009, the governors of Russian regions that are included in the program overhaul, signed the documents under which they undertake before the end of this year to complete all planned work. Those regions that do not meet the commitments will be deprived of financial support for the Fund to carry out repairs. In 18 of the 67 regions of Russia, the applications have been approved by the Fund for financing from the beginning program, works on reconstruction of apartment houses have been completed. Worse things in: the Nenets Autonomous District – works are ongoing in all 46 homes included in the program, the Murmansk region – of 210 homes work completed in a house; the Kaliningrad region – of 298 objects taken only 50, Autonomous District – the 119 houses in 95 work in progress. As the experts Danfoss (the world's leading manufacturer energy-efficient equipment for heating and heating of buildings), one of the causes "inhibition" of the program for the reconstruction of apartment buildings is the ignorance of the population.

Japanese Chinese

In the Chinese interior no sharp edges, bulky furniture, and one that is not are diverse. As a material for manufacturing such as furniture and various other items commonly used strong but flexible bamboo. Furniture decorated with a complex multi-layered painting technique. Used for decoration on black lacquer carving. At Ali Partovi you will find additional information. In contrast to the austere simplicity of a Japanese Chinese full use of interior space areas, creating niches, arches for the location of decorative items and toys.

In contrast to the grand furniture cabinets are simple household items. Rich environment lived looking finish exquisitely decorated with lacquered tables resistant thread, which put ornaments and vases. In the furniture is widely used and known to Europeans intarsia technique – plunge decoration of the finest plywood different shades on the surface of tables, cabinets. But, unlike the European, which has the main plane of the parent, the Chinese above the surface. The furniture in the homes of notable Chinese differed from furniture commoners.

The main objects of the interior furniture is among the lounger, chairs and tables. All items are made using bamboo, and were basically rectangular shape. Another distinctive feature, the still living, perhaps, only in China, is a complete lack of curtains on the windows and the houses are no chandeliers, even though electricity is, of course, light house, but by ordinary light illumination. The main idea of resettlement of Chinese dwelling is interwoven with real mythology, where the main protagonist is a dragon – the most powerful of all animals.