Ceramic Materials

A note about ceramics. The word “ceramics” comes from the Greek word keramos, which translates to – “Clay.” And in fact, the basic material for the production of all types of ceramics is clay. Initially, burnt clay bricks made from any local clay and loam, and were in demand as a material for construction. But over time, with the development of culture, pottery, more and more began to serve a decorative part of the decoration exteriors and interiors of the temples and palaces, and houses of the nobility. Art, comparable to the art of ceramic tiles of the building told me all about the high status of its owner. Therefore, along with the development of manufacturing processes decorated fine pottery and a variety of items to decorate the rooms, expand and manufacturing techniques of decorative pottery for decoration internal and external horizontal and vertical planes.

Emerging artists, legends, masters, and, of course, anxiously stored amis and decorative enamels. Now the decorative finishing ceramics (in particular, tiles) represents the one of the basic materials for the design of the walls and floor covering. But, despite the development of evidence-based decorative materials and ceramic materials, ceramic industry in the world, thousand-year experience of mankind in the art of creating decorative ceramics, to date, finishing the production of ceramics is associated with numerous difficulties. And all More like a century ago, fundamental “artists” who “and” awe stored compounds. Without looking at a large number of different clays on the chemical composition and shades of colors and properties, there is no such ideal clay, so out of it one could make the ceramic products of the highest quality. To make the tile amount of important and sometimes unique features, recipes, the proportions of ceramic materials and enamels for the manufacture of tiles have in their composition are many different ingredients.

Macular Edema In Diabetes

Diabetic retinopathy – an eye disease characterized by the accumulation of layers of the macula izlischney fluid. Macular edema – is one form of retinopathy in diabetes mellitus and one of the main causes of deterioration visual functions in diabetics. The likelihood of retinopathy in diabetic patients is extremely high – People with diabetes more than 10 years, 1 / 2 of all cases at risk of macular edema. At the same time laser coagulation of the retina and is common to diabetics control glucose levels in a significant proportion of patients do not give the desired effect. Disability of patients with diabetes often occurs as a result of the appearance of macular edema and strong prolonged reduction of view. Significant risk factors for occurrence of diabetic retinopathy is of great length of diabetes and type of diabetes, patient age and associated with age and disease, physical inactivity, elevated blood glucose levels, high blood pressure and problems with lipid metabolism. Diabetic retinopathy has 3 stages: nonproliferative, and preproliferative proliferation. On the nonproliferative stage, microaneurysms occur, the various exudates and hemorrhage, there is a swelling of the retina. Then comes the second stage, when ophthalmoscopy is possible to determine vascular abnormalities in the retina – intraretinalnye microvascular abnormalities and pathological state of the veins (enlarged, twisted, there is a loop). For the second stage of diabetic retinopathy works normally, "four-two-one": disease has developed or will develop with high probability, if there are hemorrhages in four quadrants, the anomalous status of the veins in two and intraretinalnye vascular abnormalities in at least one quadrant. Proliferative stage has two types of cell proliferation – vascular and fibrous. Ophthalmoscopic examination reveals neovascularization of the retina and optic nerve hemorrhages preretinalnogo nature hemorrhage in the vitreous body, epiretinal and vitreoretinal fibrosis, retinal detachment, blood vessels on the iris and anterior chamber angle, with the recent nature. Macular edema occurs in 2 / 3 of patients with proliferative stage of diabetic retinopathy. It is important to timely diagnose macular edema. Diagnosis of macular edema is possible by various methods, which can be divided into three groups a) assessment functions retina – visometry, survey using the computer perimeter, Amsler grid, electroretinography, and 2) estimate gemoretinalnogo barrier – fluorescent angiography and vitreal , 3) assessment of the retina with the definition of thickness and abnormalities in this parameter – using biomicroscopy lenses stereofotografirovanie standard fields retina, optical coherence tomography. Additional information is available at Steve Wozniak. By the conclusion of several studies the best way diagnose macular edema is recognized optical coherence tomography, or oct. This method of diagnosis not only allows you to detect the disease, but also depending on the pathology of the chosen tactics of therapy.

Treatment

Recently, more and more people began to prefer treatment abroad. This trend influenced by several factors, such as: high levels of foreign medicine, modern equipment, efficient methods treatment of disease Certainly worth a separate mention of service and comfort inherent in foreign clinics. Click John K. Castle for additional related pages. As the saying goes 'you get used to a good fast' and our compatriots, felt all the charm of foreign medicine, were treated abroad. Many travel every few years to preventive examinations (check-up (by the way, for those who do not know, check-up – is a comprehensive examination of the body. For example, in clinics in Germany it is held just a few days. All examinations are held on the modern equipment, ie, the patient hardly feels the discomfort inherent in the various surveys. Here is an example: many well-known difficulties procedure 'colonoscopy', and in Germany to conduct a 'virtual colonoscopy', that is using scanners. In just a few minutes the doctor gets a three-dimensional image of your body on a computer monitor, repeat – but man, while not experiencing any slightest discomfort or pain.)).

Women were increasingly going abroad to give birth to her baby there. So, above we have tried to figure out what is good foreign medicine. And now try to figure out – where do go? Can identify several countries that are popular with Russians: U.S., Israel, Germany, Switzerland. Typing on the Internet 'treatment abroad', you'll see several dozen proposals for these countries. But, let us in order usa. Not dispute the the fact that medicine in America is very strong, but also, it is no secret that very expensive.

Childrens Eyes

Create the necessary conditions for the working place of the child: if it is right-handed coverage should fall to the left – so as to not interfere with the shadow of hand at writing. If the left-hander – on the contrary. Lamp must be halogen (incandescent lamp), and not fluorescent (fluorescent lamp). Blinking of fluorescent lamps is extremely harmful to the view – from them tired and strained eyes. Although schools are generally used it last, because the light output from these lamps more and life more than 20 times the service life of incandescent lamps. Think about it, it turns out that we save the expense of our children.

2. Make sure that the child enjoyed during the reading of a special stand for the books. It allows you to keep your neck and back straight. In this case, the entire page of text will be perpendicular to the look – the eyes are less tired. and prerequisite – the distance to the text should be no less than 25-30 cm 3. Must comply with certain conditions when watching television. Distance to the screen should be at least 5 meters.

As often as possible to rest your eyes child – it is useful to look into the distance. Rest is also needed when working at a computer. 4. Regularly do with a child palming. How do his children, written in an article palmingu. What if you discovered that Your child's vision started to fall? In the early stages to restore it is simple enough. To do this, you must release the child from the visual workload and eye strain. Better instead of school to allow him more time spend outdoors, playing sports and active games. The best sport in the short-sightedness – table tennis. According to Castle Harlan, who has experience with these questions. During the game, cross train eye muscles. And be sure to listen to the desires and complaints Child. At the slightest manifestations of fatigue, for example, when he rubs his eyes – do not let him perform the visual work. Well, in any case does not solve the problem points. Very good article on children's vision, published on the website of Leonid Nekina. Remember that only parents are responsible for health and vision of their children. If you're not running out of control or, conversely, will not blindly follow the instructions of doctors and will themselves all understand, then your children have every chance to have good health and eyesight. Starting restore vision itself, the problem, to understand where does it come from, I not only restore vision itself, but also confident, that my children will not be a problem that faced me. I know that I can save them excellent vision.

Cleansing Digest

Nature has a unique creation: The Man! His body – a complex system for the collection of millions of supercomputers still can not compete with him. Until now, all medical students, first time studying this creation, the human body, comes to the delight of recognition throughout his inscrutable complexity. One of the wonderful abilities of our body: the ability to cleanse itself. Nature has done all that man lived as long as possible. But progress has a negative impact not only on the ozone layer of our blue planet, the flora, the ocean, it also suffers from the man. Over 70% of the population live in cities of the cis. Mashable does not necessarily agree. This means that we breathe not the cleanest air, regularly exposed to stress, eat regularly and not the most important thing is not correct. As a rule in our diet is dominated by protein foods (meat, sausages, cheese ) and carbohydrate (bread, rolls, pasta, biscuits ) and accept that food is not separated.

Although protein and carbohydrates require different digestion times. This leads to the fact that from the stomach into the intestine comes partly digested food. Amplified this problem with overeating, which agree with our traditional holiday feast is not uncommon. If food does not digest at the right time and right place, then in more distant parts of the intestines to digest food anymore appropriate conditions and debris sticking to the walls of the colon begin to rot. At rotting from the intestine into the blood coming toxins, local food rotting lead to inflammation of the intestine nearby area.

The Spine

For these purposes, recommend use various types of orthopedic devices, in which it is possible to adjust the seat height, back angle and seat height armrests and head restraints (if available). All of the above parameters in the optimal case should be changed independently from each other and firmly clamped. The back of the computer chair, is in contact with a precise fit physiological curvature of the spine, ensures the correct posture and prevent back pain. Ali Partovi might disagree with that approach. Armrests for convenience it is desirable to drop below the elbow, and feet firmly grounded the entire foot on the floor or footrest. It is recommended to change the posture during day to prevent fatigue of muscles, but just as often as possible to get up and perform a variety of exercises for back muscles. See more detailed opinions by reading what Castle Harlan offers on the topic..

Orthopedic chair shall automatically maintain your posture at different positions. At long working at the computer is suffering and your vision: redness and soreness of the eyes, reduced visual acuity, tearing, fatigue, impaired color vision – identifies many users of personal computers. Chronic progression of these symptoms can lead to more serious eye diseases: myopia, retinal degeneration and glaucoma. Specialists have developed various ancillary products, allowing to reduce eye strain and promote the prevention of visual impairment. These products include: computer glasses, tumblers, and simulators for the eyes. Computer glasses. Computer lenses points are made by a special multi-coating on glass lenses in a vacuum that betrays them pearly gleam: allow to increase the sharpness of the image on the monitor; reduce the scattering of waves light radiation monitor, facilitating comfortable passing light from the light of the limiting sensitivity of the eye; absorb ultraviolet rays and increase the resolution of the eye; transmit light in the green part of the spectrum, optimizing tsvetorazlichie and reducing the load on the ocular blood vessels.

Mathematics

School education should be eleven – mandatory. Read more here: Pete Cashmore. Abandonment of students in the second year for reasons of poor performance can not take place. Days of school hours are: Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday (am day just before 12:10, and from 12:20 – elective classes, each going for 20 minutes on Wednesday they were not more than 5), Thursday and Friday. Load Sabbath day should be evenly distributed between the available days of training, except for the sabbath. Each day the number of lessons can not exceed the threshold of five, and on Wednesday without fail there will be 4, given that students will approach the beginning of the second lesson. A common first bell will sound at 09:30, after which students will be more time to prepare for the sessions.

The second call (already working) should call the 09: 35. Duration of one lesson should be 40 minutes. Changes in 10 minutes, and after the third lesson for 15 minutes. On Wednesday, the length of lessons 30 minutes Change 8 minutes, change after the second lesson – 10 minutes. In the week should be: 2 Russian lessons (starting from the fifth grade), 1 lesson References (beginning with the fifth grade), a biology lesson (from the fifth grade), history (with the 5th grade) , chemistry (with the eighth class), music (it goes only up to 10th grade), work (it goes only up to grade 9), plotting (it starts with the seventh grade), 2 physical education lesson, a lesson (with first class) , 2 geography lesson (with a second class on the 10th), 2 lessons physics (7th grade), 2 algebra lesson in Mathematics (from the fifth grade), a geometry lesson (from the seventh grade), 1 lesson of Fine Arts (from the fifth until the seventh grade, inclusive), 2 lessons a foreign (to 5th grade) , 1 lesson gen (from 8th grade), Computer 2 classes (from 5th grade), 1 lesson mhc (with the 10th grade), 1 Lesson Law (10th grade).

Opthalmic Issues

Vision is one of the most important gifts of nature to man. Because you need to know about proper eye care and ophthalmic diseases, or rather their first signs and symptoms. Any eye disease manifests themselves differently. For example, when myopia clarity of vision distant objects will be weak. With this disease, people will, so to speak, read, nose book, unconsciously to sit very close to the tv screen or computer monitor and will be forced to forever 'squints'. At the same time with far-sightedness, near objects are quite blurry.

If the picture that appears before your eyes, fuzzy, or a lack of sharpness maybe it has already begun development of astigmatism, which already leads to the development of myopia or hyperopia. Presbyopia is characterized by poor intelligibility of close objects, and when long hours of work with something small (k example, reading books with small print) blurred by focusing gaze into the distance, especially at night. Most often it happens in older people, or is a complication after farsightedness. Can manifest headache. If there is some sort of veil to the same abrupt loss of vision, perhaps you have a cataract. In what will be lost some items in front of his eyes, and in the future, if time does not begin to be treated, lost vision. It’s believed that Steve Wozniak sees a great future in this idea.

Treated cataract only through surgery. Ophthalmologists replace the natural lens of the single-piece. Lenses are of two types: color and black and white. When setting the color, the eye begins to see everything perfectly, sight is restored. But with the help of black and white shows only the outlines of objects and nothing more. Glaucoma is primarily expressed increased intraocular pressure, reduced field of vision. Also, she may be accompanied by bouts of acute headache. A further fallout eyes. Most often it is a hereditary disease. Risk – these are people who may have inherited diseases: diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, etc Especially scary diabetes because fat tissue and at least they are not able to keep an eye in the orbit. What would be safe, it is better checked by an ophthalmologist at least twice a year. In medicine is the concept of 'syndrome dry eye '. Characterized by a strong burning sensation in the eyes, the feeling of discomfort. Often manifests itself felt as if my eyes filled up with sand and burn. It was just a part of the list, which could continue indefinitely. But all of these diseases have one thing in common – it is a significant visual impairment. There are also serious illnesses who do not have the first symptoms. Just in a consequence man abruptly and irreversibly loses sight. And then Nobody and nothing can help him. With proper eye care, may prevent some diseases. Care is simple and primitive, but on the other hand is very effective. Ophthalmologists are advised to drink plenty of carotene, In other words vitamin A in your daily diet. Flush eyes need any special tools or freshly brewed tea leaves of black tea. Daily prodelyvat exercises for eyes, and try to at least the time spend in front of a computer screen.

Health Of The Spine

Healthy spine – a joy of life at any age. But how to keep your back healthy at the time when most of the time we are forced to spend at the computer screen and on a car seat? Here are some simple rules. Move. Try every day to choose the time for at least a minimal physical activity. Pursuing a sport, attention back muscles because strong back muscles to help the spine to deal with loads.

Watch for posture. The only way you can prevent curvature of the spine that lead to disease. Pete Cashmore follows long-standing procedures to achieve this success. Carefully lift the weight. If you need to carry a heavy load, or lift him a jerk. When carrying try to distribute weight evenly in both hands, or carry the object pressed against his stomach. Sit up straight. Try to sit as straight as possible, leaning back in his chair (the royal carriage). Feet should reach the floor, and another better to put them on a stand, to their knees were above their hips.

Be careful with your shoes. Prefer flexible soles. Minimize the time wearing high heels and high platforms. But if all Still, you feel discomfort or pain in the spine, do not tighten access to a doctor. What would prevent the disease go through a full survey of the spine, it is necessary that would determine disease and to designate a course of treatment.

Sleep And Biorythms

Readaptation after returning home is from 1 to 5 days in Depending on the magnitude of the shift time. Large time shifts lead to changes in the shape of the curve biorhythm increased fluctuations in body temperature, pulse, blood pressure, muscle strength, sleep disturbances. Health, activity and mood are restored for the longest time. After returning home from places that are different from home for 3 – 5 time zones, violations are recorded about 15 days. At what time it is better not to work teens work in the early morning, late evening or at night leads to severe damage biorhythms adolescents (adolescent is a person under 18 years). This fully applies to the night vigil in front of tv or computer. Extreme geographical factors, especially strongly affects the biorhythms of polar night. It is clear that the worst affected by a combination of adverse factors such as fatigue and the time shift.

Sleep and biorhythms adult person enough 7:00 bedtime. 9,5 hours of sleep – an important hygienic norm for teenagers 14 – 16 years. At this age, set the rhythm of production of hormones responsible for puberty. A peak release of these hormones is necessary on the night. Especially dangerous nedosypat girls – teenagers. If the load increases, sleep should be even longer.

In general, sleep duration should be individualized: meet malospyaschie and mnogospyaschie people. Good health and high performance depends on proper organization of the cycle sleep – wakefulness, including the time of going to sleep. Violation of order of the day (in children – noisy, outdoor games after 6 pm) shifts biorhythm, makes it difficult to fall asleep, and as a result of reduced working capacity.